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ENG GEO
ENERGY

Energy is a property of particles, objects, or unity of objects and is a quantitative measure of motion and interactions. Different types of energy include: kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy, gravitational energy, elastic energy etc.

Energy resources could be divided into two groups – renewable and nonrenewable. Water, the sun, and wind belong to the first one; coal, oil, natural gas belong to the latter. By the mode of use energy can be divided into traditional and nontraditional (alternative). Traditional energies are hydro-, thermal and nuclear energies; nontraditional – helio- (solar), eolo- (wind), geo-thermal waters, and biomass energy. According to expert evaluations Georgia has the following energy resources:

Potential annual hydro energy resources of Georgia equal to 135.8 billion kilowatt / hour, technical potential is 81 billion kilowatt /hour, and economically beneficial – 32 billion kilowatt/hour. Estimated potential of coal reserves by 1 January 2000 equaled to over 400 million tons; projected oil reserves in the sea and on land equal to 1381 million tons, and producible stocks – 525.0 million tons. According to recent evaluations projected natural gas resource in Georgia equals to 180 m³. Annual solar radiation capacity in Georgia is equivalent to 108 megawatt. Technical potential of wind energy is 4.5 billion kilowatt/hour a year; projected reserve of geothermal springs (water temperature 90-110 C°) is 250.0 million m³. 510 megawatt power can be received by processing biomass. Given these energy resources, the priority for Georgia is hydropower, including development of small hydro power stations.

Hydropower

Among Georgia’s natural resources first and foremost are water, and water related resources. Georgia’s hydropower potential (rivers, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, ground-waters, and swamps), with due account to its total area, ranks among the first in the world.
There are 26 060 rivers in Georgia with total length of 60 thousand km. Total fresh water reserve of glaciers, lakes and reservoirs is 96,5 km³. up to 300 Georgian rivers are energetically important; their total annual potential power equals to 15 thousand megawatt, and average annual energy equals to 50 billion kilowatt/hour. Due to pronounced seasonal fillability of Georgian rivers, distribution of these resources is possible only by building hydropower stations with regulatory reservoirs. However, building such power plants is complicated in terms of environmental security; so the focus is on construction of small hydropower stations.

Solar energy resources

The sun is inexhaustible source of energy on earth. Growing pace of technological advance allow for more efficient application of this energy. Solar energy equipment can convert solar energy into thermal- and electric energy.  Respectively, distinction is made between solar thermal equipment and solar photocells (solar panels). Thermal and electric power, generated by these equipment is applicable for both household and energy goals. The equipment efficacy depends on solar radiation (tilt angle and average flux on the working surface), and its efficiency factor. Georgia, because of its geographical location, is suitable for harvesting of solar energy. There are 250-280 sunny days i.e. about 6000-6780 sunny hours annually on the most of its territory. Solar energy of direct radiation per 1 square meter of perpendicular to the sunlight surface equals to 1,300 – 2,500 kilowatt/hour, which exceeds average European analogue – 1,000 kilowatt hour/m². The highest radiation occurs in the highlands of the Greater Caucasus.

The wind energy resources

The wind energy results from solar energy and occurs due to uneven heating of the earth. The earth receives 100 000 000 000 000 kilowatt/hour solar energy, 1-2% of which transforms into the wind energy.  It is 50-100 times more than the energy that all the plants on earth transform into the biomass.
Georgia has high wind energy potential that could generate about 4 billion Kilowatt/hour electric power annually, and its delivered power is estimated to 1500 megawatt. By its natural wind energy potential Georgia can be divided into high-speed, medium-speed, and low-speed areas, with speed fluctuations from 2,5 m/second to 9,0 m/second, and work time of about 4000-5000 hours annually. Best placements for wind power stations have been selected, all over Georgia.
However, no wind power station project has been implemented in Georgia until now

Environmental policy

Environmental policy refers to the commitment to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental and sustainable development issues. These issues generally include air and water pollution, solid waste management, biodiversity, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. Policies concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances including pesticides and many types of industrial waste are part of the topic of environmental policy. This policy can be deliberately taken to direct and oversee human activities and thereby prevent harmful effects on the biophysical environment and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in the environment do not have harmful effects on humans.
The attempts of environmental policy planning in Georgia started already in the 90-ties of last century. It was realized that environmental problems were of comprehensive character, comprising the social dimension (quality of life, health) and an economic dimension (resource management, biodiversity). In 1996 the Law on “Environment Protection” was adopted.  The law provides for the development of sustainable development strategy and entrusts this task to Ministry of Environment. Many laws and by-laws relating to environment protection were passed in Georgia since then. Georgian Constitution, which prevails over all laws, sets up general regulations for environment protection and use of natural resources. The Law “On Environmental Protection” (1996) also creates a general legal framework for environment protection and use of natural resources. Besides, Georgia has assumed international commitments, which also form environmental policy. Georgia is trying to implement international environmental approaches and regulations wherever possible to approach developed international community. According Article 6 of Georgian Constitution “An international treaty or agreement of Georgia unless it contradicts the Constitution of Georgia, the Constitutional Agreement, shall take precedence over domestic normative acts”. However, not all international commitments can be fully implemented. The EU-Georgia neighborhood policy Action Plan, developed on the basis of the EU Neighborhood Policy document, contains strategic objectives of cooperation between Georgia and the EU. The Action Plan was approved in November 2006 by the EU and Georgian governments and its implementation would be an important step forward in terms of Georgia’s integration in European economic and social structures.

The Association Agreement was signed between Georgia and the EU, one of the items of which is environment protection.  The agreement provides for a range of activities in the field of environment protection, implementation of which will support not only the creation of appropriate environment for the humans and ecosystems, but also the enhancement of environment management and efficient decision-making.

Environmental control

In 2005 the environment protection inspection was established at the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, which was considered one of the most important events in environment protection field. Pursuant to 2011 legislative change, the said entity was canceled and its functions redistributed to other agencies. As a result of 2013 reorganization new state control body – a state sub-departmental institution – was established within the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, which is entrusted with implementation of state control over environment protection and use of natural resources on the whole territory of Georgia, including its territorial waters, the continental shelf and special economic zone. The sphere of its activities is the protection of air, water, soil, subsoil and biodiversity, the monitoring of implementation of forest legislation, control the compliance with the terms of licenses and permits for the use of natural resources, waste-management and chemical security, and environment protection.
A hotline – 153
To provide timely information about violations and responses to it round-the-clock telephone service was established.
 
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