The notion “ecological catastrophe” implies: 1) natural anomaly; 2) nuclear power plant, tanker, and etc. accidents; 3) harmful anthropogenic interference with the living space. The number of natural disasters during recent 30 years increased significantly due to climate change. According to the UN more than 600 natural disasters occur annually in the world, the number of affected people exceeds 200 million, and economic losses reach 100 billion US dollars. The number of eco-migrants reaches 25 million people, which is twice as much as total number of IDPs as a result of armed conflicts and political repressions. By forecasts of international organizations, the number of eco-migrants by 2050 will reach 200 million due to climate changes.  

Typically, natural disasters include all natural phenomena, which have adverse effect on human lives and normal functioning of society, cause human casualties, and damage to property.

Disasters are classified as follows:
  • Hydro-Meteorological – drought, flood, thunderstorm/lightning, storm, cyclone, tornado, etc.
  • Geophysical – earthquake, volcano, tsunami, volcanic eruption, rock-fall, avalanche, landslide erosion;
  • Ecological – diseases of plants and animals, insect invasion, wildfire, glut of pesticides;
  • Technological – armed conflicts, transport accidents, nuclear/chemical incidents, oil spill, water/air/soil pollution;
  •  Global/environmental – acid rain, air pollution, global warming, sea-level rise, ozone layer depletion.
Hence, disaster is not always a natural one, often it is the result of human activity. Disaster is largely caused by anthropogenic factors, due to the people’s unawareness and wrong attitude to nature.

Because of difficult terrain and geographical location Georgia experiences natural calamities that are large-scale and recurrent, and their threat is quite high. Georgia is one of the leaders among mountainous countries in negative effects of these phenomena. In recent years, against the background of global climate change and activation of the human impact on the environment, there has been a significant increase in frequency and intenseness of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters in Georgia.

In 1967-2012 more than 60000 families were displaced as eco-migrants in Georgia. During this period the economic damage of the country, caused by geological disaster, amounted to over 14 billion USD, more than 1000 people died, of whom 107 – in 1995-2012.
With regard to industrial accidents, it should be mentioned that thousands of different large, medium and small enterprises operate in Georgia. Possible accidents therein may cause significant damage to the population and the environment.  Besides, there are many suspended productions, and abandoned, without any security measures, plants. Many of them used oil products and other chemicals, the remains of which are scattered on the territory without complying with the rules of storage. These substances pose a threat of accidental pollution as a result of the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors.
Of the existing businesses especially dangerous are the ones that produce oil products, chemicals, plastics, mineral and building materials; production of iron and steel products and fabricated metal, and mining also contain the threat.
May 2020
გამოკითხვა თქვენი აზრით, აღმოფხვრის თუ არა დანაგვიანების პრობლემებს დაწესებული სანქციები?