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ENG GEO
CLIMATE CHANGE

Climate, in fact is averaged weather. Climate change is defined as a change of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time in all the earth or a specific region.

The history of mankind knows different periods of global climate changes. However, current climate change is caused by human activity, and is directly related to industrialization. Global warming, which means the rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects, started in pre-industrial period (approximately 1750) and increased in second half of 20th century. Global warming is mostly being caused by the emissions of “greenhouse gases” and, appropriately increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases as a result of human activities. Any of the gases whose absorption of solar radiation is responsible for the greenhouse effect, including carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, etc. are called “Greenhouse gases”. This phenomenon is called the “greenhouse effect”. Among harmful effects of climate change are the glaciers retreat in the mountains and the decline in arctic sea ice, so called “heat waves”, drought, on the one hand, and heavy rain on the other, sea level rise, flooding, landslides, avalanches, mudflows on the other; amplification and acceleration of tsunami and various storms. Climate change leads to the change of the nature and ecosystems, causing the extinction of many plant and animal species; the risk of disease, including epidemic is growing. Harmful results caused by “greenhouse effect” show all the great diversity and intensity year after year, which aggravates the problem and calls for urgent resolution.

Signs of climate change appeared in Georgia in the 60s last century and sharply deteriorated in late 90s. The average rise in temperature in West Georgia reached 0,7°, and in East Georgia – 0,6°. As for the rainfall, they slightly decreased in West Georgia, however precipitation increased in certain local areas. In East Georgia it increased insignificantly (maximum 6%). As a result of these changes the intenseness and frequency of extremes caused by global warming have increased. Draughts and spring winds in semi-arid areas, coast erosion and washout process has intensified on Black sea littoral zone. Besides, the satellite monitoring of several Caucasian glaciers shows that average speed of glaciers retreat is 8 m/year, and the shrinking rate - 6-9%. The Caucasian glaciers retreat leaving behind huge masses of stones, rock fragments and mud that attack the population in the form of an avalanche as a result of torrential rains. These events put at risk the safety of the population and cause great damage to the country's economy.
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